ACTS PROJECT AC017

 

CICC

Collaborative Integrated

Communications for Construction

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title:

 

Final Report

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Issuing Partner:             BICC

Project Title:                 CICC

Deliverable Title:           Final Report

Category:                      Final

Confidentiality:              None

Authors                         CICC Team

 

 

Date:                            Dec 1999

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



1.                executive summary                                                                                           2

2.                project objectives                                                                                          2

3.                relationship to programme objectives/consensus management activities   3

3.1               Participation in Domain/Chains                                                                                  4

3.2               Contribution to Guidelines                                                                                         4

4.                main achievements of the project                                                               4

4.1               People and Information Finder                                                                                   4

4.1.1            The Four Information Sources                                                                 5

4.1.2            User Interfaces                                                                                      5

4.1.3            Global Virtual Factory Demonstrator, Six Factories                                   6

4.1.4            Shared Virtual Environment                                                                     7

4.1.5            CICC Team People and Information Finder                                               8

4.1.6            Ove Arup Intranet, 15 Countries                                                               8

4.2               Augmented Reality                                                                                                   8

4.2.1            Introduction                                                                                           8

4.2.2            Evaluation                                                                                             8

4.3               CICC Networking Strategy                                                                                         9

4.4               Pilots                                                                                                                      9

4.5               Collaboration Model                                                                                                10

4.6               The “Cycle of Cognition”, a Proposed Reference Framework for Networked Collaboration 11

5.                main conclusions reached                                                                           13

6.                Input to standards and ACTS guidelines                                                  14

7.                overall impact, exploitation and dissemination of results              14

8.                self assessment                                                                                             15

8.1               Technology                                                                                                            15

8.2               Pilots                                                                                                                    16

8.3               Project                                                                                                                  18

 


 

1.                              executive summary

ACTS project CICC, Collaborative Integrated Communications for Construction, focused on the benefits of networked collaboration between the many different types of participant in construction projects.  

Evaluation of the “CICC Vision” of using the Internet, multimedia communications, single project model and Augmented Reality (AR) to support collaborative activities in construction was approached in two stages.  Firstly a prototype/demonstrator was assembled in the more benign environment of manufacturing.  This showed how a group of similar factories spread around the world could improve effectiveness and gain economies of scale by using CICC technologies to operate as a single “Global Virtual Factory”. This demonstration was then used as a reference point for a number of construction sector demonstrators and pilots that addressed particular aspects of the overall CICC vision.

Economic, technical and organisational analysis of CICC pilots was carried out before during and after the pilots.  These indicated that:

·                     The organisational and social implications of the CICC technologies are immense but require a complete rethink of the way a project is organised. In particular they enable the shift of staff from main contractors to specialist SMEs, the change in a manager’s role from information provider to facilitator, and effective collaboration between people of complementary skills in different organisations.

·                     AR technologies will eventually play a key role in linking the single project model to the reality of the construction site.  Better object oriented CAD packages, more powerful registration techniques and a range of UMTS wearable devices are required before AR will be cost-effective on a day-to-day basis.  However AR already has a role at the negotiating stage of major projects in ensuring that clients understand what specialists are proposing. 

·                     Although the cost-benefit analyses showed small benefits these have now become overwhelming with the rapid drop in Internet and mobile costs and dramatic improvements in the usability and reliability of applications.

·                     The overall CICC vision corresponds very closely to the way Internet technologies have developed since the project was proposed.  This has pre-empted the opportunity to directly exploit applications that were developed for the pilots such as the video and screen glances and the Photo WalkAround.

The primary impact of CICC has been in indicating the importance of Internet and 3D technologies as catalysts for helping the construction sector to move to a more effective and more collaborative mode of operation. The workplace studies have shown the importance of understanding how people collaborate through an ever-changing mix of natural and new technology channels. The full economic and social benefits of Information Society Technologies can only be realised by ensuring user procedures across the network are closely related to our existing patterns of behaviour.

A construction industry collaboration model has been produced. It covers the operation of the agile teams that have always existed in the construction sector and how they can adapt to take full advantage of Internet technologies.  The construction sector has proved an ideal environment in which to study distributed agile teams.  Such teams are of increasing importance in other sectors as the Internet reduces the costs of supporting distributed and temporary teams

The collaboration model together with results from related work on multimedia user interfaces have helped to propose a reference framework for networked collaboration, the Cycle of Cognition, that can be used for supporting the development of ICT products and services. This relates the cycling of information between the sources accessed by the CICC People and Information Finder (PIF) to the cycling of individuals between private and collaborative activities.

CICC has proved a very effective bridge between construction industry needs and new technology opportunities and has stimulated further development and research in many areas including: Internet based services for construction, Augmented Reality for manufacturing and construction, object oriented CAD for construction, workplace studies and the proposed reference framework for IST services.

2.                              project objectives

The objectives of CICC were to demonstrate and evaluate a range of innovative Telepresence, Internet, Augmented Reality and Multimedia services in the construction sector.

The primary objective of the CICC approach was to enable dispersed and temporary teams to work together as effectively as co-located teams.  This is highly relevant to the transient and dispersed nature of construction projects but it is also applicable to multi-location manufacturing and, increasingly, other sectors.

The CICC services were to be used to access information via visualisations that are analogous to the mental models built up by a project manager.  By sharing a view of the project it becomes easier to devolve responsibilities to the people most competent to tackle each task.  Visualisation would include views of a project model as well as representations of colleagues and other documents.  The data navigation process would closely resemble seeking information in an open plan office or on a construction site and could perhaps encourage a convergence of office and site work practices.

Major efficiency improvements were anticipated from:

·                     faster finding - of people, documents and data

·                     greater understanding  -  presenting the right information in the right format at the right time

·                     improved collaboration - using visual material to reinforce compatible points of view

Construction comprises approximately 10% of European GDP and this sector is traditionally a follower rather than a leader in the use of communications and IT services.  One objective of CICC was to demonstrate how the sector could take advantage of ACTS technologies to catch up with other sectors and with manufacturing in particular.  This was assisted by a shift in attitudes that was sweeping through the UK construction sector in the early 1990’s.

3.                              relationship to programme objectives/consensus management activities

CICC addressed several fields of basic research in tasks 112 and 121 of Area I (Interactive Digital Multimedia Systems and Services) of the ACTS programme and tested the results in a well-planned series of user-led trials (Advanced Communications Experiment - AC 40).

Sub Area 5: Service Access for Advanced Multimedia Applications,

Task 121 Service Interface, User Guidance and Information Retrieval in

Multimedia Distributive Services

Using construction sector activities as the initial target area, the intention was to work towards a virtual task context which is as rich as a well-equipped co-located team.  CICC explored virtual reality technology to support navigation thorough 3D graphical metaphors of the people and information associated with the project together with a 3D visualisation of the project itself.

A People and Information Finder, a first step to towards an Internet Portal, was implemented. It used a content-based retrieval mechanism focusing on visual data from the construction site or manufacturing shop-floor and would discourage trying to reach people when we really want information and searching for data when it is easier to ask people.

An AR system was used to enhance real-time video from the construction site with information from the project model.  A unified spatial user interface was used to support user guidance and content based retrieval within a distributed multimedia application.

An objective was to allow participants to interact with remote people and information in the same cognitive way that they interact locally.  Persistent multiway multimedia communications channels that use a broadband ATM based infrastructure was assumed, although initial implementations used a mixture of TCP-IP and ISDN.

Sub Area 3: Advanced Telepresence Services ,

Task II 2 Telepresence and Multimedia Demonstrations

Building on studies carried out in the RACE program where user requirements for advanced communications services in the construction and manufacturing sectors were identified, CICC implemented a series of pilots. These included collaborative telepresence and multimedia services on a range of fixed and mobile workstations linked by advanced communications networks. 

The implementation of these pilots was guided by workplace studies carried out across the locations that supported the pilots.  Subsequently the pilots were evaluated in techno-economic terms and the results fed back to the sector, to suppliers and to ACTS.

As in most sectors of European industry, construction is increasingly a global activity and it is essential that it prepares for emerging international broadband facilities.  Day to day industry practice still varies a lot from country to country and construction benefits more than most from the cross-fertilisation that comes from comparing different ways of doing things.

The CICC construction partners had offices across the globe, thus making it possible to share valuable trans-European and global experiences as well as facilitating the dissemination of the results achieved within the project.

The European communications services sector was represented in the project by BT Laboratories and Telefonica. Thus, the user-led trials undertaken within the project would have a clearly trans-European communications flavour.

3.1                         Participation in Domain/Chains

CICC has chaired Chain T&SVE, Telepresence & Shared Virtual Environments,

CICC participated in Chain GAD, Communication Technologies for Sustainable Development.

CICC contributed to a number of other chains and domain activities.

3.2                         Contribution to Guidelines

As chair of chain SID, “Telepresence and Shared Virtual Environments”, CICC contributed to the “Telepresence and Shared Virtual Environment” guideline.  The CICC contribution was the “Cycle of Cognition”, a proposed reference framework for Advanced Communications Technologies and Services.  The draft architecture is included as appendix 7 of deliverable 14, Collaboration Model

CICC has contributed to Chain GAD, “Communication Technologies for Sustainable Development”, by preparing the guideline:

GAD2-A2 “Balancing between Information and Materials”

This guideline explores whether a new equilibrium can be achieved between materials and information, reality and virtuality, atoms and bits, and will provide recommendations for product and service development to encourage effective augmentation of real environments with virtual and telepresent environments.

In addition, the CICC project manager continued to contribute CICC results to global sustainability objectives in the ACTS project ASIS that was set up to continue the GAD guidelines activity.

4.                              main achievements of the project

4.1                         Introduction

The primary focus of CICC was on the use of ACTS technologies and services to support collaboration in the construction sector. 

The initial CICC vision in the project proposal was based on anticipated developments in Internet technology and was guided by previous work on Collaborative Virtual Environments by partners BICC, BT and Brunel University.

In the CICC proposal a particular vision of telepresence in construction, the People and Information Finder, was proposed.  In the first year of the project, this vision was demonstrated in the prototype of a manufacturing pilot - the “Global Virtual Factory”.  This work clarified the relationships between communications services and led to an expansion of the role of the “People and Information Finder” as a gateway to all forms of information and the redevelopment of a reference framework for ICT services.

The “Global Virtual Factory” demonstrator was used as a reference point for the wide variety of construction sector pilots that were more limited in scope but could be used on real projects. These pilots were highly visible within the construction sector, particularly in the UK and Spain, and there are already many follow up actions, both in implementing Internet based services and in further research on improving technology support for collaboration in construction.

Analysis of changes in the nature of collaboration as network support for team working increases was covered by workplace studies before during and after introduction of the CICC services, development of necessary applications to support the CICC Vision, and development of a reference framework for future collaboration services.

4.2                         People and Information Finder (PIF)

A detailed description of the CICC PIF is provided in CICC Deliverable D12.

The PIF presents a unified view of information regardless of its source.  This is a framework for ensuring that user interfaces information are compatible regardless of whether the source is other people, documents, data or the real world.  The PIF encourages compatibility across different retrieval methods. 

It is important that the retrieval methods for information accessed through the network should be as compatible as possible with those used for local non-electronic material. Internet Portals are including an increasing number of the CICC PIF components in a standard form.  The next step of getting into step with non-electronic methods is now more likely to be achieved by adapting non-electronic methods to match those of the Internet.  A first sign of this is the use of URL conventions in paper documents. 

The framework is shown in the following diagram and comprises two key elements – the four information sources and the user interface – described in detail below.

4.2.1                      The Four Information Sources

Information in People’s Heads  When this information is emotionally neutral and trust has been established a direct question can be asked. However the more important the information the less likely it is to be neutral.  Extracting such information from inside another person’s head can then become an enormously ingenious exercise which is highly dependent on the degree of understanding and commitment between the two. The other person is no longer an information source but a collaborator, as indicated in the downward arrow on the left of the diagram.

Information in Documents.  Both paper and electronic documents are included.  These are raw unstructured facts that have yet to be logically related to each other and added to the database.

Structured Database.  A database includes a vast amount of information in a structured but not necessarily convenient form.  It can be difficult to link its structure to the subtleties of the real world. Object orientation has improved flexibility and made it easier to insert these links as they are discovered.

Physical Reality.  Much of the information inside our heads comes from the physical world. After passing through the document and database stages, this value-added information returns to the physical world as new and rearranged objects.  Individuals’ responses to the new physical reality start a new iteration.   This cyclic process is particularly clear at the construction site and on the factory shop floor where people are continually responding to what they see happening around them.

4.2.2                      User Interfaces

The four information sources are reached using a wide range of tools. It is becoming increasingly clear that the quality and compatibility of these tools has a dominant effect on the success of a project.  As this is recognised the role of Knowledge Manager is expected to clarify.  The PIF implementations in CICC included the following components: 

Home Pages  A person’s Home Page includes awareness of position in the organisation and availability.  In one form used in CICC this includes a small video window and a miniature of the persons PC screen that are updated every 30 seconds.  Having some idea of what they are doing makes it easier for others to choose the right time to interrupt them, as in an open-plan office. Pointers to the half dozen organisational “nearest neighbours” are included on the home page together with the individual’s own description of their current and past activities.

Task View.  This is the primary common artefact for supporting a particular collaborative activity. In construction a visualisation of the current state of the project is often used.  The Task View  or shared artefact is used to give each user the same immediate perspective on the task.  Its effectiveness comes not from its complexity, but from its ability to establish a shared and unambiguous starting point for discussion. In the case of a construction project the Task View is occasionally the scale model of the future building. Electronic Task Views can be more ambitious and flexible than physical ones.  In the Bluewater pilot Task Views were usually frozen versions of CAD drawings held in an image database. 

Augmented Reality.  The real world is a grossly under-utilised source of information.  Far more of this information could be used if it was logically linked with the database. This is the promise of Augmented Reality, not only is the project model registered with what can be seen on the site but the visualisation can support hyperlinks to related information that can be shown on the see-through head-mounted display.

Directories.  Directories are well established in both paper and electronic filing systems.  A remarkable step towards universal compatibility has been taken recently in presenting web documents in the same format as those on the local hard disc. The next step may be to extend this common format to objects in the physical world of the workplace and the mental worlds of colleagues' minds – a cultural impertinence that deserves considerable debate!

Search Agents.  These are newcomers. Every time someone makes their way through the PIF to reach an item of information they leave a record of their pattern of work and recent requirements.  The search agent can use this information, together with many other types of analysis, to provide faster ways of getting to information and more convenient ways of displaying it.

4.2.3                      Global Virtual Factory Demonstrator, Six Factories

In the first year of the project Internet tools emerged faster than expected, enabling us to implement an impressive Global Virtual Factory demonstrator. The overall objective was to show how global organisations, such as the 20,000 people in BICC cable making operations, could exploit Internet technologies to improve internal collaboration and external competitiveness.  The demonstrator was implemented in association with BICC Mineral Insulated Cables.

This was the earliest and also the most advanced trial. It was a self-contained demonstration that suspended disbelief amongst potential users for the half-hour required to comprehend the “CICC Vision”. It was of great importance in helping to specify the more down to earth pilots and showing how they related to each other.  The strategic objective was to help encourage staff in six cable making plants across four countries to think of their own factory as just part of much larger virtual factory and hence treat members of the other factories as colleagues and not as competitors.

The factory demonstration included many components of the PIF: a standard home page layout, conferences with live video from the shop floor, a virtual reality reference factory and photographic tours of real factories.  It was possible to switch between reference points such as the annealing furnace in the reference factory and any of the real factories.  Understanding the context of other peoples' workplaces was an important step towards seeing things from their point of view and hence opening the door to enthusiastic collaboration.

The demonstration maintains suspension of disbelief for long enough to get a feel of what a complete implementation would be like.  By showing the GVF to a wide variety of people, including BICC staff world-wide, it has been possible to strengthen the concept without the costs and risks of a premature implementation.  The demonstration was placed on accessible PCs at the two UK sites, and the Photo Walkaround was issued to all sites.  Over 80 UK staff had simple home pages on the servers.  (A more refined version but with dummy home pages was used for external demonstrations). Some of the facilities, such as the PictureTel desktop video and the Photo WalkArounds, were of immediate use to the participating sites (Hebburn and Prescot in the UK, Trenton in Canada, Indianapolis in the US, Clayton in Australia)

The facilities of the Global Virtual Factory were selected in the light of earlier workplace studies and economic analysis of what might be needed.  They included:  

Home pages.  These personal Web pages supersede the company telephone directory.  As well as personal contact information, they include:

“GroupWhere”. An application that refreshed video and screen glances once every 30 seconds in order to provide the modest degree of activity awareness that is comparable with walking around an open plan office

Nearest Neighbours.  An awareness of each person’s real role within the organisation was conveyed by asking everyone to include the 6 most important contacts on their home page.  This proved to be an effective and acceptable way of capturing the informal social structure of the company.

Photo Panorama.  A panoramic photo taken from where a person works provided a literal way of seeing things from their point of view, an important first step in establishing rapport.

“Photo WalkAround”.  Unique features of a particular factory could be displayed by travelling around a set of about 500 photographs of the factory. By zooming and panning between views the user got the impression of visiting a remote factory without having to travel half way round the world to get there.

Reference Factory.  People in different factories do not always have the same concept of what a factory is.  This Virtual Reality model of a standard factory brought out commonalities between factories that might look very different in the Photo WalkAround.

Video Open Plan Office.  A row of video glances of people doing related tasks in different factories. Above them was their common “Task View” in the Reference Factory.

Shared Application.  This is one of the earliest PC based collaboration tools, allowing all participants in a distributed meeting to interact with the same “Shared Artefact”.

“Egocentric” Meeting.  The video glances of all those who might contribute to a distributed meeting were placed at the top of the screen and the window of the shared application is placed below. The application widow was effectively the meeting table and the others appeared to be on the facing side of the table. This is an “egocentric” seating plan that, in real life, could only be enjoyed by one participant.

“Telepresence Trolley”.  A cordless telephone, digital camera and video camera on a trolley with a radio link to the site LAN allowed the shopfloor staff to contribute to the networked “egocentric meeting”.  The design of this trolley was informed by results from the ACTS project MICC, and the earlier RACE project BRICC.

This figure shows one of the views from the GVF demonstration.  The user has navigated to the annealing furnace through the virtual reality reference factory and has asked to join the team of 4 furnace experts, one in each real factory.  By looking at the video and screen glances of this group they have called up the man on the right hand side and the two are sharing the furnace artefact as a starting point for a conversation that might well use shared whiteboard and other facilities as the conversation progresses.

The organisational and social implications of such intrusive networking were addressed in the workplace studies and a cost-effectiveness analysis of the impact on factory processes was carried out. These studies showed that the approach is very powerful but will only bring benefits if everyone is aware of how the nature of their job can broaden as they start to work more closely with members of other factories.

The full Global Virtual Factory implementation requires robust and standardised versions of a number of Internet applications, an Intranet with low latency and on-demand bandwidth allocation, and multimedia client machines. At the human level manufacturing staff are not used to the agile teams that are already part of the construction culture. For all these reasons was not possible to proceed from demonstrator to a manufacturing pilot.  Selected services from the above list were explored in the construction plots.

4.2.4                      Shared Virtual Environment

The research laboratories of BT and Telefonica were linked by an 8MB/s multimedia communications channel so that people at each end could inhabit the same Virtual Reality office or construction site.  This was both the most literal interpretation of a shared virtual environment and also the most disappointing.  Including avatars that represented other people within a standard anonymous office did nothing to lower social barriers and filled screen space that could have held more relevant material. Seeing the avatars within say, a visualization of the completed building was equally confusing, perhaps because collaboration is most effective when everyone can see exactly the same view of the future building.  The fact that two people cannot stand in the same place and that nearby people hid part of the view are two of the disadvantages of the real world that can actually be avoided in virtual reality.

4.2.5                      CICC Team PIF

This was a public web site that included CICC format home pages, including video glances and screen glances, for members of the CICC team at several locations.  These glances could be arranged in groups to form a virtual open plan office or placed across the top of the screen to simulate presence on the other side of a table during a meeting.  By reducing the update rate to once every 30 seconds (except when people were actively participating in the meeting) and making the screen glances so small that text could not be read the approach was intended to be no more intrusive than glancing around in an open plan office.

4.2.6                      Ove Arup Intranet, 15 Countries

A “People and Information Finder” of home and team pages was set up by one of the CICC partners, Arup Communications.  Within a few months, 30 groups across 15 countries had copied the approach. This achieved a dramatic but unquantifiable improvement in competitiveness, primarily because it became very much easier to contact other people when preparing bids.

4.3                         Augmented Reality (AR)

4.3.1                      Introduction

A detailed description of AR in CICC is provided in CICC Deliverable D21.

Augmented Reality technology presents an inherently promising means of providing the shared artefact of the PIF Task View.  It is effectively a bridge between what is and what should be.  In the case of construction it is usually consists of a 3D visualisation registered and integrated with video or overlaid on the real world.

The CICC AR system was tested and enhanced as appropriate  in several construction pilots: for two Millennium Bridges with Ove Arup & Partners and Sir Norman Foster & Partners, on the Bluewater construction site with Bovis, Stent and Trimble, and at the Expo 98 construction site in Lisbon with Europroject. In addition, the CICC approach to the use of AR in construction was tested on a construction site in Munich in collaboration with Holzmann AG.

The Millennium Bridge pilots proved the utility of AR in the early phases of the construction process. When designers – architects and engineers - want to propose a new design or present alterations to an existing design, the CAD model can be visualised online as augmentation to any or all of calibrated video clips of the site. Whilst the process of photomontage which achieves the same effects currently is tedious and time-consuming, with AR the understanding (calibration) of the image is decoupled from its augmentation with virtual objects. Thus the automatically generated augmentations can be altered at interactive speed and numerous versions can be produced according to the wishes of the construction client.  This screen shows several Augmented Reality functions in operation at the same time.  Cards representing the London Millennium Bridge and the viewing position are tracked by the computer as they are moved by designers.  The resulting augmented view is show in the insert and a second view is shown on the right hand side.

 


 

The Expo 98 pilot used the CAD model of the building itself as a basis to calibrate a video sequence of 440 images in a few hours, thus illustrating how virtual information becomes reality over time and starts playing a new role in AR applications.


 

4.3.2                      Evaluation

These pilots were instrumental in the realisation that several technical aspects are critical for satisfying the quality criteria for the AR process. The critical aspects are jitter-free calibration, suitable semi-automatic user interfaces, and very good graphics.  A quick real-time turnaround and portable computers with head-mounted displays are less important for the practical utility of AR because of the way in which construction operations are carried out.

Real-time augmentation of video from sites becomes more critical during the later phases of construction. The constituent elements for this type of AR were tested on the Bluewater pilot.  The critical aspects turned out to be the need for fast, robust and precise tracking and the simplicity of setting up the system. In addition, the portability of computing on a construction site is a key factor. The use of a head-mounted display to view the AR system on site appeared to be a less-critical item.

It is already technically feasible to provide AR support in the later phases of construction by using a camera on a tripod and a small AR-computer. The local environment could be prepared by setting up the required markers in the local vicinity. The video scenes taken by the camera could then be augmented on the PC and the augmentations viewed on a monitor close by.

The CICC AR work and other ACTS projects in the Telepresence and Shared Virtual Environments chain have led to the identification of a number of immediate design guidelines for AR and VR in applications such as construction.

4.4                         Networking Strategy

A detailed description of networking strategy in CICC is provided in CICC Deliverable D13.

Initially it was expected that a particular low level architecture would be identified for CICC services.  In practice the Internet has emerged as a universal standard.  It is fully compatible with the CICC vision of fluent and natural use and switching between a wide variety of services.  Particular features for construction applications include:

·                     The basic network is a multilocation extranet which allows full communication between project members but protection from outside intrusion.  Extranet implementations such as IP tunnelling are required to guarantee digital privacy over public Internet links.

·                     The network must be configured for effective voice and video performance as well as for data transfer. The new services provide the context that ensures the data transferred from one organisation to another is used more effectively than in the past.

·                     Prior to the ready availability of broadband Internet it is essential to provide conventional voice and ISDN video services.

·                     An optional public fraction of web pages hold information of benefit to those outside the project

·                     The basic network is implemented in two parts: a core network of high capacity leased lines between major sites and dial up access for the many small and peripheral organisations that come and go during the course of a project.

·                     It is good practice for every subcontractor to be included in the core or dial up network. Dial up connectivity, usually taking advantage of the short set up times of ISDN are important to ensure that even the smallest SME can be included on the network.

·                     On a construction site a single Ethernet LAN is required. Many portable site offices now include Ethernet cabling.  Wireless LAN has been found to be effective for linking site offices of different companies. 

·                     Radio links also have sufficient bandwidth to support the digital cameras and laptops that are increasingly being used on site. The situation in mobile communications is changing rapidly.  The WAP protocol and successors will enable users of mobile terminals to access an IP network.

·                     Internet front-ends to conventional databases should be used to the full to ensure compatibility of usage across applications.  In some pilots such interfaces were not yet available and a conventional database has to be accessed using a proprietary user interface. 

·                     If broadband Internet is not available it is essential to include provision for dial-up ISDN services, particularly for multimedia communications including video as well as voice and data.

The dominant constraint in network strategy is security.  This is achieved partly through IP Tunnelling. However the primary leakage is through the behaviour of individuals rather than sabotage from outside.  Thus it is essential to ensure the collaborative culture is introduced in step with IP based services that link different companies. It is important that staff appreciate that the network can record all transactions including voice conversation and that the records can be used positively to build trust and for automatic documentation as well as to track down abuses

A single network architecture will not meet the demands of construction. The needs of users are too varied. Two network types are proposed: high bandwidth transfers over a backbone between core sites and a dial up network for intermittent users. The combination of these two styles will allow for flexible and effective project and organisation communications.

To summarise, the CICC vision assumed a range of services and bandwidth that were not available when CICC started.  Current trends indicate that they will all be achieved within a few years.  Thus implementers of construction sector networks can proceed with a CICC approach knowing that, even though some channels will have limited performance, these limitations will not be so bad that the overall approach is frustrated.

4.5                         Pilots

4.5.1                      Introduction

A detailed description of pilot activities in CICC is provided in CICC Deliverable D15.

Underlying all the CICC trials was the objective of addressing the fundamentals of how humans collaborate with others to use and produce information.  An understanding of such fundamentals is of increasing importance as the technologies of computing and communications come to dominate the working day.

It was difficult to carry out social usability trails using unreliable and incomplete prototypes of future systems, especially in a sector where time and cost are at a premium due to the small margins of construction projects. However, by focusing each trial on particular components of the “Global Virtual Factory” demonstrator, it has been possible to select a comprehensive range of pilots that address all aspects of the CICC Vision:

·                     in Britain and in Spain

·                     in building and in civil engineering

·                     involving designers, contractors and project managers

·                     in small, medium-sized and large organisations

·                     in large and small projects

·                     using multimedia, 3D modelling, AR and PIFs

The CICC prototypes and pilots explored complementary and manageable fractions of the complete CICC Vision demonstrated in the Global Virtual Factory.

The two largest Pilots were the Bluewater shopping centre and the Europroject PIF.

 

 

·         Bluewater Shopping Centre, over 100 enterprises

E-mail and bulletin boards were added to the Bovis Hummingbird image database and the complete system was used by hundreds of individuals over the 3 year construction phase of this very large retail development.  The effectiveness of the basic Hummingbird system prepared the minds of this group for brief demonstrations of the many prototype services that were tried out at the site.  These included video conferences, desktop video, awareness indicators, photographic walkabouts of the site, public web page showing live video from a surveillance camera and a networked screen saver that paged through the latest site photos, giving everyone a strong feeling of identity with the project.

·         EuroProject People and Information Finder, client and consultant

The trial was implemented as a conventional web site that held all the designs and supporting information about company projects such as the marina at Expo98.   It provided an effective link between the headquarters of the EuroProject consultancy in Barcelona and the construction site in Lisbon.  It was innovative in two respects:

·         The client had direct access to design and testing data.

·         The same web interface was used to access people, documents, structured information and live video from the site.

4.5.2                      Evaluation

These pilots and prototypes demonstrated that we are entering a period of immense upheaval in the construction sector.  The new technologies are forcing participants to question the way in which construction projects are managed.  The widespread use of a networked document repository at Bluewater has shown what will be possible when this information is truly integrated in an object based 3D CAD and process system and accessed using Internet applications.  The use of mobile services in a related pilot in MICC showed the potential of including construction site staff in the distributed project team for achieving major cost and materials savings.

As the CICC pilots and prototypes encompassed a variety of trial environments, a range of evaluation techniques was employed. For a large trial such as Bluewater, process based evaluation was deemed unfeasible both technically and in terms of resources. A wider approach, based on the methods adopted in workplace studies was considered more appropriate. For medium-sized trials such as Expo98, Cascais Marina and BICC Cables, process-based evaluation techniques were employed. The main processes affected by the trial were modelled and the impacts of the changes in working methods made possible by the new technologies were simulated and tested. For small-scale trials or technology demonstrators such as the Millennium Bridges, the Santiago Tower and the Shared Virtual Environment, the evaluation focused on feedback from in-house experts relating to the usability of these technologies.

4.6                         Collaboration Model

A detailed description of the CICC Collaboration Model is provided in CICC Deliverable D14.

The need to have a better understanding of the nature of collaboration both locally and across the network required extensive workplace studies over the period of three years encompassing a large construction project with 120 partners ranging from large multinational construction firms to SMEs.

The major innovation in the CICC workplace studies was to extend ethnographic studies of conversational interactions to cover the complete range of social and informational activities that can be supported by the network.  A major outcome is the Collaboration Model that describes in what way and to what extent the networks may contribute towards effective collaboration in construction.

The workplace studies have drawn on the following concepts in handling the issues involved in providing greatly increased links between staff in different countries, perhaps speaking different languages and subject to differing organisational cultures.

·         An ethnographically informed approach to Distributed Cognition.  Identifying how teams work together to solve problems and develop a total understanding that is somehow spread across the minds of several people. 

·         Cognitive Science Approaches.  Earlier studies on introducing “networked information” to distributed teams have indicated that it is important to distinguish four types of information:

·         in peoples heads

·         in documents

·         in structured data

·         in the real world,

The four types of information complement each other and serve an important role in providing context for the users. In particular, informal context information is extremely useful in understanding and using the rigid structured information found in a database.

By focusing on the way in which each individual makes use of the networked information we are addressing issues that are central to the effectiveness of partnerships and distributed organisations in both manufacturing and construction.

These workplace studies resulted in recommendations for co-ordinating the introduction of technology and organisational change and a proposal for an Intranet architecture covering topics such as personal information spaces, records and contacts, and privacy and content requirements.

The results have clarified the need for further research in three main areas:

Organisational studies and human resource management focussed on agile teams. In particular the need for analytical frameworks that describe staff roles in relation to information and communications technologies

User interface design focussed on providing access to different sources of information such as people, databases, documents and manuals, as well as to the real world of construction site or manufacturing production. The user interface should be as compatible as possible with real world experiences in the office and on the construction site. AR is the leading edge example in its visual integration of the real world with the CAD database to support collaboration across the network while participating in the real world.

Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) primarily using IP based voice, data and video technologies. The importance of recognising that people need two kinds of resource for co-ordination and collaboration: explicit representations such as diagrams and implicit representations providing a context such as a nod of the head that means agreement.

The development of this model of human collaboration contributed towards the “Cycle of Cognition” a proposal for a general reference framework for networked collaboration, Appendix 7 of D14.

4.7                         The “Cycle of Cognition”, a Proposed Reference Framework for Networked Collaboration

The CICC “Cycle of Cognition” is described more fully in Appendix 7 of CICC Deliverable 14.

This framework evolved in the light of experience in the pilots described above. It includes the following components:

·         People and Information Finder, PIF

·         Cycle of Information, relating the PIF  information sources

·         Cycle of Collaboration, relating the different modes of communication

The concept of a PIF was introduced in the CICC proposal and was clarified in the diagram in the PIF section above. The Cycle of Cognition extends the PIF to bring out the iterative refinement of information as it passes between sources, usually in the cyclic direction of the arrows. Although firmly based in construction the model is equally applicable to other areas of human endeavour.  Internet Portals are including an increasing number of the CICC PIF components.

The PIF is the set of new information tools that provide a unified and effective way of reaching the four types of information: in peoples’ heads, in documents, in data in the real world. 

The “Cycle of Information” refers to the normal flow through these four types of information.  The quality and/or effectiveness of the information usually improve with each stage.  A common browser interface, the “People and Information Finder”, is used to access all four. It includes many different services, primarily web based, that support an organisation’s Knowledge Management function and bridges the gap between the nature of the raw information and the needs of the user.  These services include Search Agents, Home Pages, Directories, Task Views and Augmented Reality. 

Whereas the Cycle of Information covers the refinement of information over time the Cycle of Collaboration coves the progress of users activities over time. The Cycle of Collaboration provides a temporal framework for switching between communication modes both locally and across the network. By focusing on the most likely transitions from one mode to another this cycle provides an integrated way of mapping the diversity and richness of collaborative activities to the variety of voice, data and video services now available.

The Cycle of Cognition as a whole is a top-down approach to communication that complements the bottom-up approach followed in the Collaboration Model, D 14.  The collaboration model activity identified a construction cycle that can be considered to be a special case of the Cycle of Collaboration.

The framework can also be used to support the emergence of compatible cultural standards for social activities both locally and across the network. The need to agree social conventions at the desktop and for mobile users is becoming widely recognised through activities such as the CICC workplace studies and the responses to the factory demonstration. Discussions with designers and users of shared virtual environments, MUDs and computer games have shown the importance of such conventions. Without electronic versions of real world conventions it is all too easy to fall back into “pre-social” behaviour such as flaming.

The framework is showing considerable promise as a way of relating information processes in the home and workplace (presence) with those that can be transmitted across the network (telepresence), and those that would not be possible without the computer (virtual presence).

 

 

 

 

 

 

The stages of the Cycle of Collaboration: Territory, Map, Landscape, Room, Table and Theatre describe a paradigmatic route through different communications modes. Each stage can be made up of any combination of electronic and natural components.

 

The strongest relationship between the Cycle of Information and the Cycle of Collaboration occurs when an individual in the landscape stage is accessing both people and documents through the PIF.

The metaphors of the Cycle of Cognition are intended to achieve the usual function of reducing cognitive load and freeing users to concentrate on task rather than technology. They present telephone, video, database, and other services in a form that is compatible with the way people interact in the real world.

The fact finding of the Map stage is supported by search agents and search engines.  Browsing the Landscape of active documents and relevant colleagues is supported by the home pages with their real time video and screen glances.  The meeting Room rapport is helped by a high bandwidth video conferencing system.  Once rapport and trust have been established, the Virtual Meeting Room metaphor is replaced by the meeting Table metaphor. The metaphor of Theatre emphasises the need to dramatise and broadcast that conclusion of a meeting to the relevant community. Finally the Home metaphor was used to emphasise that the workplace is a temporary personal territory. The Home stage ends with reporting completion and the search for a new task using some form of Map.

This sequence is suggested as no more than the most likely route through the many communications modes and a route in which every stage is likely to include a mixture of local and networked activities. 

5.                              main conclusions reached

Overall, CICC has given us a very clear vision of how the construction community could evolve over the next few years and which collaborative tools are most relevant.  In particular it indicated which aspects of lean manufacturing could be transferred to construction as soon as mobiles and wearable computers become as ubiquitous as the desktop PC.

The primary conclusions from the CICC project are:

1.       The new technologies are forcing participants to question the way in which construction projects are managed.  The widespread use of a networked document repository on Bluewater has shown what will be possible when this information is truly integrated in an object based 3D CAD and process system.  The use of mobile services in a related pilot in MICC showed the potential of including workface staff in the project team for achieving major cost and materials savings.

2.       Internet technologies will transform the construction sector particularly when the multimedia networking demonstrated in CICC is combined with mature versions of the mobile technologies demonstrated in ACTS project MICC.  Since the CICC pilots many construction organisations have set up their own Intranets to simplify the process of distributing documents and encourage access by anyone for whom they may be relevant.

3.       The change from formal access to specialist databases to informal access via an Internet browser is a profound one. It is not simply a scaling up exercise. The new information users need far more visual and organisational context and a far more intuitive user interface than the specialists who might spend all day working with a single application.  Here an Internet browser is the obvious choice.

4.       Augmented Reality is one of many tools for providing context to the task information.  All of the new tools allow faster and more effective switching from one task to another and therefore greatly reduce the friction and mistakes caused by sudden questions from colleagues.

 

6.                              Input to standards and ACTS guidelines

CICC was concerned with social processes within the agile teams of the construction industry, Intranet implementations and Augmented Reality. These social processes do not form conventional technical standards. 

The Augmented Reality work was too early to propose standards.  However the AR team have contributed to consensus building in the AR community by participating in the two San Francisco AR workshops in November 1998 and October 1999 and organising an AR session in SIGGRAPH 99.  In addition they have now won a major German research contract that continues the development of AR and applies it to the automobile sector, a sector that is now recognised as a more suitable starting point for AR than construction.

The CICC Intranet approach has been well publicised to those developing web standards

The contributions to guidelines are discussed in Section 3.

7.                              overall impact, exploitation and dissemination of results

7.1                         Dissemination

A detailed description of CICC exploitation is provided in CICC Deliverable D17.

Starting with the CICC workshop in October 1996, the CICC vision and approach has been discussed with a wide range of relevant individuals and groups, in the workplace studies interviews, in exhibitions, in presentations and papers at both construction and communications conferences, and in smaller workshops with colleagues in related disciplines.  The final workshop at the London Virtual Reality Centre in October `1998 was given to a substantial and relevant audience and received good coverage in a prime construction journal. A description of the Final Workshop is provided in CICC Deliverable D16.

The dissemination activities have proved very effective in relating developments in Augmented Reality, 3D CAD, 3D reconstruction (via the RESOLV project) and wearable computers (via the MICC project) to the needs of the construction sector.  They included an exhibition stand at the conference on “Communications in the 21st Century” at the European Parliament in Brussels.  Here, we were able to present a coherent vision of how developments explored in the three ACTS projects CICC, MICC and RESOLV (among others) were transforming the construction sector. 

The CICC vision was also captured in a training video for construction professionals made by the TEN organisation which has been seen by about 10,000 construction professionals world-wide.

Feedback from these activities enabled CICC to refine its mission: to improve the quality, value and timeliness of construction projects by using the network to support visualisation of information and awareness of other people.

7.2                         Impact

CICC has been a very visible project within the construction sector, particularly within the UK and Spain.  It has drawn the attention of the sector to the rapid progress in Internet services and the way in which the sector can exploit them.  The greatest benefits come from understanding how the structure of the industry has to change to take full advantage of new multimedia services and the shift from an adversarial and towards a collaborative culture that these technologies enable.

CICC promoted the importance of the ACTS communications perspective to the IT community in construction. As such CICC activities have been complementary to the UK ConstructIT programme. This comprised a large number of projects concerned with improving the effectiveness of IT usage within the construction sector. The CICC vision and approach, particularly in the area of Virtual Reality, is being further developed by the ConstructIT group in a new IST project. 

Promotion of the CICC vision and approach by Spanish partners has had a similar effect in the Spanish construction industry and led to a follow on project with Catalan construction companies.

Over the last few years BICC, the CICC project leader has been substantially restructured, selling off most of the cable manufacturing side and developing the construction side.  This is a result of recognising the far greater growth potential of CICC technologies for improving the effectiveness in construction as opposed to commodity manufacture.

7.3                         Exploitation

A detailed description of CICC exploitation is provided in CICC Deliverable D17.

Immediate exploitation of CICC applications has been limited because CICC effectively developed a vision of how emerging Internet applications could be used. The functions of many of the prototype applications are now covered by off the shelf products and included as free applications within web browser, e.g. Microsoft NetMeeting.  Exploitation of the Photo WalkAbout was pursued in the extension of the ACTS RESOLV project.

The CICC approach to a PIF is being pursued most energetically by partners Ove Arup and EuroProject, and by Stent Foundations, one of the subsidiaries of BICC.  Networked awareness issues are being further developed at BT. AR development has been accelerated at ZGDV. The study of the nature of collaboration is being pursued by staff who were at Brunel and BICC during CICC.  The challenge of integrating visualisations and virtual reality with construction activities is being pursued in a number of related research projects.

8.                              self assessment

8.1                         Technology

CICC started as an attempt to integrate spatial user interface metaphors with 3D shared virtual environments and to use the down-to-earth requirements of the construction sector to ensure the results were universally applicable.

Although our attempt to integrate the state of the art in shared virtual environments with that in 3D object based CAD was not effective at the perceptual level, it did identify a more fundamental need to integrate the two at a cognitive level.  Construction rarely involved fly through experiences. What it does need is visualisations that break down the barriers between specialists and the rest of the construction sector so that a more collaborative culture can be encouraged. 

CICC was outstandingly successful in showing how visualisations of both physical and abstract subjects supported by emerging Internet based services can be used to improve collaboration in construction.

Attempting an immersive experience was found to be ineffective for a number of reasons that would not be overcome with advancing technology. We are used to a rectangular information source such as a PC screen or book telling a story or convey information. What we cannot handle is an immersive sensation that is not matched to where the body is in the real world.

Early work on AR showed that registering the CAD model to the real world will remain technically challenging for some time to come but that the more fundamental concept of enhancing the reality of what is seen on site with relevant information from the project database, would be of great value to a wide range of site staff. This form of real world annotation could be implemented by using GPS and other location techniques and used as a quick way of accessing information about the history and future of nearby objects when out on the construction site.

In both cases, virtual reality and augmented reality, we have moved away from attempting to achieve sensory visual presence and towards more abstract visualisation.  The new priority is using visualisation tools to enable staff to experience the sense of cognitive presence in technical details that has been confined to trained specialists in the past.  This is an essential element of more effective collaborative team working.  The fact that these tools are electronic brings the added bonus of supporting distributed teams.

The inner worlds of different members of a construction project are very different. The bricklayer experiences the textures and the time changing nature of wet mortar, while the structural engineer sees the inner stresses within the hidden framework of the building.

Visualisations have been found to have far more potential in acting as a mediation tool between different specialists. They obviously live in the same visual environment but completely different inner worlds.  Thus the role of 3D visualisations, both of the single project model and of the user interface metaphors, is to provide the shared artefacts required to support collaboration.

In the light of this experience CICC shifted focus from perfecting 3D user interfaces to the human processes of collaboration in mixed realities.  This has also demonstrated immediate benefit to the construction sector and delivered far more inn the way of immediate guidance than had been anticipated at the start of the project.

CICC has identified what is probably a more fruitful area of research in integrating the virtual and telepresent people and information with the local information environment of local people, documents and objects.  The next stage in developing this enhanced reality is to draw on the full repertoire of Intelligent Room technologies and wearable computer technologies to integrate the social ecosystem of the project community with the digital ecosystem of the Global Information Infrastructure.

8.2                         Pilots

The use of a demonstrator in manufacturing – “Global Virtual Factory” - was an enormous advantage and provided an integrating framework for parts of the CICC vision that were robust and mature enough to be explored in real construction projects.

The largest of the pilots – Bluewater - provided a unique opportunity to carry out ethnographic studies in a construction environment over a period of 3 years and observe the processes of implementing networking technologies that were fundamentally changing the way staff perceived their colleagues.

Augmented reality was found to be valuable for a limited range of roles.  It has pointed the way towards a wider vision of enhanced reality in which any type of information related to what is being looked at is presented on the screen of a portable device.

The PIF was found to be moving in the right direction, being effectively a predecessor of the Internet portal. Obviously the resources available to commercial portal implementers are far greater than those of CICC, so it provided a model for adapting portal applications for construction project needs, a process that is now continuing at CICC partners, Arup, EuroProject and BT.

In the case of the Single Project Model it was not possible to find suitable applications. This is partly because the change from 2D to 3D CAD is about far more than adding a dimension.  It is about going from lines to objects and giving the objects all their properties, not just their visual ones.  Although prototype 3D applications existed during CICC the libraries of construction objects were insufficient to support a significant project. 

CICC proved very successful in relating R&D activities of many different kinds: AR in Germany, PIF in the UK and Spain and fully networked collaboration in the US.

The comprehensive coverage of the CICC pilots is conveyed by the table on the following page.

 


 

 

 

CICC PILOTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pilot 1

Pilot 2

Pilot 3

Pilot 4

Pilot 5

Pilot 6

 

 

BLUEWATER

CASCAIS

EXPO 98

BRIDGES

STENT

BICC CABLES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COUNTRY

UK

Spain / Portugal

Spain / Portugal

UK

UK

Worldwide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION PROJECT SIZE

Large

Large

Small

Large

Large

Large

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION PROJECT TYPE

Building Engineering

Civil Engineering

Building Engineering

Civil Engineering

Civil Engineering

Manufacturing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION PROJECT PHASE

Design

Design

Design

Design

Design

Design

 

 

Construction

Construction

Construction

 

Construction

Manufacturing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USER ORGANISATION

Large

Small

Small

Small

Small

Large

 

 

Medium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Small

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USER FUNCTION

Designer

Designer

Designer

Designer

 

 

 

 

Contractor

 

Contractor

 

Contractor

Contractor

 

 

Project Manager

Project Manager

Project Manager

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TECHNOLOGY USED

Multimedia

Multimedia

Multimedia

Project Model

Multimedia

Multimedia

 

 

Project Model

Project Model

Project Model

Augmented Reality

Project Model

Project Model

 

 

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality

 

PIF

PIF

 

 

PIF

PIF

PIF

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PILOT DURATION

1996 - 1998

1997 - 1998

1997 - 1998

1996 - 1997

1997 - 1998

1996 - 1997

 


8.3                         Project

The CICC partners proved to be a very good mix of construction companies, technical developers and system integrators who appreciated the relative merits of technology, social and economic issues

The pilots were effective because they were real and large scale.  Although this added to project cost it meant that results were credible to the industry and immediately exploitable, as in the Europroject PIF and the roll out of the validated Bluewater services to 6 other sites.  The workshops in the UK and Spain were a very effective way of reaching construction managers who could be convinced of the benefits of new ways of working.

CICC has helped the construction sector to be more effective.  The overall project objective has been met by showing how the efficiency of the sector can be improved by the use of Internet, AR, and multimedia communications and by indicating where these technologies should and should not be used.


Annexes

A. List of Main Deliverables (form M4D)

 

 

  Deliv.    W.P.          Deliverable Title                                                   Date         Deliv.   Deliv.       Sec. 

   Code    Code                                                                                              Due         Nature    Type     Class

 

       

    001        wp1          List of Dependencies (Form M4E)                         01/07            R          N            R   

 

 

    003        wp1          Selection of Modelling Software for Pilots            01/12            R           N            I   

 

 

    002        wp1          Integrated Video and Product Model demo            01/12            P            N           P   

 

 

    004        wp1          Person and Information Finder (Large Screen)       02/03            S           N           I   

 

 

    005        wp1          Augmented Reality using Static Camera                02/06            P            N          I   

 

 

    006        wp4          Pilot Implementation Report I                                 02/06           R            K           P   

 

 

    007        wp5          Demonstration Workshop                                        02/08           O            K          P   

 

 

    008        wp1          P&I Finder (small screen)                                        02/11           S            N           I   

 

 

    009        wp5          Project Exploitation Strategy                                   02/12           R            N          L   

 

 

    010        wp5          CICC Demonstration / Workshop                            03/04           P            K          P   

 

 

    011        wp1          Augmented View using Mobile Camera                  03/06           P            N          I   

 

 

    012        wp1          Person and Information Finder (Mobile)                  03/07           S           N           I   

 

 

     013        wp2          Equipment and Network Services Architecture       03/12           R          K           P   

 

 

    014        wp5         Collaboration Model for Construction/Manufacturing 03/12         R          K          P   

 

 

    015        wp4          Pilots Implementation Report III                                04/06          R           K         P   

   

 

    016        wp5          CICC Demonstration / Workshop                               04/04          R           K        P   

 

 

    017        wp5          Exploitation Plan                                                          04/08             R           K        I   

 

 

    018        wp5          Project Evaluation                                                        04/08             R           K        P 

   

 

    019        wp5          Data obtained from Process and Pilots                     04/08             R           K         I   

 

 

    020        wp4          Cost benefit Analysis                                                 04/08             R           K         P   

   

 

    021        wp5          Augmented Reality Applicability                               04/04              R           K        P   

 

 

    022        wp5          User Implementation Strategy                                 04/08               R           K        P   

 

 

B List of published papers*

Author

Title of paper

Name of journal/ conference, etc

Vol / Page

Etc

Date

G. Klinker, et al

Real-Time Vision-Based Camera Tracking for Augmented Reality Applications

 

IEEE Conference on Computer Vision & Pattern Recognition, San Juan, Puerto Rico

 

 

 

June 17-19, 1997

Crotty, R et al

 

Information Technology Decision Support in the Construction Industry.

Department of Transport London, UK

 

September, 1996

Professor Keith Devlin

Retreat from Reality

The Guardian (an UK national Quality Newspaper)

 

March 1998

 

Shrinking Distance

Building Services Journal

 

March 1997

David Leevers - BICC

“Inner Space – The Final Frontier” International Conference “From Desktop to WebTop: Virtual Environments on the Internet, WWW and Networks”

National Museum of Photography, Film & Television, Bradford, U.K.

 

April 1997

 

Multimedia Broadband Technologies in Real Estate and Construction : European R+D Projects within the ACTS Programme

Television Education Networks (TEN) Video

 

April 1997

BICC

Presentation on CICC Technologies

UK Department of the Environment and the Institute of Civil Engineers at the Department of Trade and Industry, London, UK

 

May 1997

 

Surf to Survival

New Civil Engineer Magazine

 

May 1997

BT

Presentation of the CICC project and PIF demonstration

UK Building Research Establishment

 

May 1997

BICC

Presentation of CICC technologies

The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) Information Management Panel at the RICS Headquarters in London, UK.

 

June 1997

Alistair Duke BT

Internet and Intranet Usage in Communications Infrastructure for Virtual Construction Project Teams

WET ICE ’97 (Workshops on Enabling Technologies and Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises)

 

June 1997

Alistair Duke - BT

Enabling Collaboration for Virtual Construction Teams

Concurrent Engineering in Construction Conference in London, UK

 

July 1997

Duska Rosenberg – Brunel University

People and Information Finder – The Informational Perspective

International Research Workshop on Social Shaping of Technology at Edinburgh University, UK.

 

July 1997

Chimnay Anumba – BT

Presentation of CICC Technologies

Korean national companies and Universities

 

August 1997

Chimnay Anumba – BT

Presentation of the CICC programme.

Singapore Power

 

August 1997

 

 

 

 

 

Duska Rosenburg - Brunel University

Libraries as Information Environments

Special issue of BLERB Magazine

 

August 1997

 

 

 

 

 

ZGDV

Automated Camera Calibration and 3D Egomotion Estimation for Augmented Reality Applications

7th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP-97) in Kiel, Germany

 

September 1997

ZGDV

Real-time Vision-based Camera Tracking for Augmented Reality Applications presentations

Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST-97) at Lausanne, Switzerland

 

September 1997

Bovis

Presentation of CICC work

UK Construction EDICON Group

 

September 1997

Bovis

Presentation of CICC work

UK Institute of Civil Engineers

 

September 1997

A. Duke – BT

Telepresence in Virtual Construction Project Team

ECCE symposium – Computers in the Practice of Building and Civil Engineering in Lahti, Finland

 

September 1997

D. Leevers - BICC

Presentation of “Using Action and Technology to Support Community”

Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI) Stanford University, U.S.A.

 

October 1997

BT

Presentation of CICC project, PIF and AR demonstration

Demonstration to ACTIVE consortium and Construct IT MSc students

 

October 1997

ZGDV

Presentation at the opening of the “House of Computer Graphics”

Darmstadt, Germany

 

October 1997

BICC

Presentation of CICC technologies

UK National Construction week

 

October 1997

BICC

TEN Video – Multimedia Broadband Technologies in Real Estate and Construction : European R+D Projects within the ACTS Programme

Television Education Networks (TEN) Video

 

October 1997

ZGDV

Chapter entitled “AR for Exterior Construction Applications”

AR and Wearable Computers” edited by W. Barfield and T Candell, Erlbaum Press

 

December 1997

BT

Demonstration of PIF, AR and the Bluewater Photo Walkabout

British Telecommunications Telepresense Showcase, Martlesham, UK.

 

December 1997

A. Duke et al. – BT

Telepresence Based Support for Concurrent Engineering in Construction

American Society of Civil Engineers: Computing Congress

 

March 1998

Bovis

Presentation of the CICC Bluewater Pilot

UK Construction Industry Computing Association

 

June 1998

BT

Presentation on Telepresence in Construction

WS Atkins at the BT Customer Care Centre

 

September 1998

BT

A People and Information Finder for Virtual Construction Project Teams.

British Telecommunications Engineering Journal

 

September 1998

ZGDV

Technical Pressentation of CICC Work

First International Workshop on Augmented Reality (IWAR) San Francisco USA.

 

October 1998

D Leevers

Virtual Presence – Collaborative Integrated Communications in the Construction Sector

“Work Nouveau” session,

IST 98, Vienna

“Living and Working in the Information Society”

 

30 Nov – 2 Dec  1998